RAILWAY ENGINEERING

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee M.M. AGARWAL

This book deals with all aspects of railway engineering, from fundamental concepts to modern technological developments, with special focus on Indian Railways. It is an amalgamation of the vast experiences of the authors-of teaching the subject as well as of serving in Indian Railways. The text presents the theories and field practices as well as the modern techniques in detail.

Content and Coverage

The book treats the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject exhaustively and incorporates the latest provisions adopted by Indian Railways (IR).

Chapter 1 presents a historical account of railways around the world with special focus on the important features of IR. Chapter 2 discusses the various gauges adopted by IR and the problems associated with multigauge systems. Chapter 3 explains the factors affecting track alignment. Chapter 4 describes the different types of engineering surveys required to be undertaken before launching a new railway project as well as the construction of new lines including doubling and gauge conversions. Chapter 5 presents the details of track specifications and structures for different gauges on IR. It also discusses the forces acting on a track and the stresses generated in track components.

Chapters 6 to 10 describe the various components of a railway track-rails, sleepers, ballast, formation, and fittings and fastenings. It also discusses the recent provisions adopted by IR with respect to these components.

Chapter 11 explains the causes and remedial measures for creep in rails. Chapter 12 presents the basic aspects of the geometric design of railway tracks. Chapter 13 discusses the detailed design of the horizontal and vertical curves on a railway line. Chapter 14 and 15 elaborate on the various types of track junctions and their designs, layouts of turnouts, and the factors affecting speed on turnouts.

Chapter 16 discusses rail joints and the methods used for welding rail joints. Chapter 17 describes the developments in welded railway tracks including long weldedrails (LWRs) and continuous welded rails (CWRs). It also explains the detailed procedure for laying LWRs and the track specifications for long and short welded rails. Chapter 18 describes the calendar system of track maintenance being followed by Indian Railways, which includes the conventional track maintenance operations of through packing, systematic overhauling, and picking up slacks. Chapter 19 details the track drainage system, along with the drainage of station platforms, yards, and subsurface drains. Chapter 20 describes the modern methods of track maintenance followed by Indian Railways employing track machines. It presents the details of measured shovel packing (MSP) equipment on IR. The chapter also describes Directed Track Maintenance (DTM)-IR's annual programme-and its future scope.

Chapter 21 elaborates on the methods of track rehabilitation and the renewal of track components. It also discusses some new machines used by IR for track renewal. Chapter 22 discusses accident and disaster management, which assumes significance because of greater emphasis being placed on safety by Indian Railways. Chapter 23 describes level crossings and the measures taken to prevent accidents at such crossings. Chapter 24 includes the design and maintenance features of locomotives and other rolling stock. Chapter 25 provides the details of train resistances and their evaluation. It also defines tractive effort and hauling capacity of locomotives.

Chapters 26 and 27 include details of station yards and the various equipment used in railway stations, respectively. Chapter 28 discusses the construction of new railway lines, track material required for BG tracks, doubling of railway lines, and gauge conversion. Chapter 29 exclusively discusses suburban railways in metropolitan cities, which is the latest trend in the Indian context, so that this subject is fully appreciated by the readers. Chapter 30 is devoted to the specialized subject of railway tunnelling, describing the various techniques of construction and maintenance of tunnels in different types of soils.

Chapter 31 on signalling and interlocking gives the details of various signals, interlocking techniques, and modern developments concerning train control. Chapter 32 discusses the various modernization plans of IR, covering tracks, locomotives, and rolling stock for high-speed trains, with the aim of widening the readers' understanding of the scope of railway engineering.

Acknowledgements

While writing this book, references have been made to several Indian Railways codes and manuals and other documents published by RDSO (Research Design and Standards Organisation, India). We have liberally used these documents and gratefully acknowledge RDSO. We are grateful to our family members for their moral support and cooperation while the book was being written.

Though every care has been taken to produce an error-free text, some errors may have gone unnoticed. We will be grateful to the users of the book for bringing any such errors to our notice, so that these can be rectified in subsequent editions. Constructive suggestions and comments for further improvement of the content are welcome.

Satish Chandra

M.M. Agarwal