Security and Safety Technology

Security Analysis of Urban Railway Systems

Binbin Chen1, Christoph Schmittner2, Zhendong Ma2, William G. Temple1, Xinshu Dong1, Douglas L. Jones31, and William H. Sanders3

Urban railway systems are increasingly relying on information and communications technologies (ICT). This evolution makes cybersecurity an important concern, in addition to the traditional focus on reliability, availability, maintainability and safety. In this paper, we examine two examples of cyberintensive systems in urban railway environments-a communications-based train control system, and a mobile app that provides transit information to commuters- and use them to study the challenges for conducting security analysis in this domain. We show the need for a cyber-physical perspective in order to understand the cross-domain attack/defense and the complicated physical consequence of cyber breaches. We present security analysis results from two different methods that are used in the safety and ICT security engineering domains respectively, and use them as concrete references to discuss the way to move forward.

Keywords: security analysis, urban railway systems, cyber-physical systems, railway safety

The Safety Technology of Railway Signalling: its Most Distinctive Features and its Wider Application

Yuji Hirao, Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan Masayuki Matsumoto, East Japan Railway Company, Japan

This paper discusses the formulation of railway signalling safety technologies and the integration of fail-safety and quantitative analyses, extending the railway signalling safety concept into the industrial field.

In the context of the risk-based safety management approach, safety requirements for railway signalling systems are prescribed in CENELEC/IEC standards. Functional safety nowadays extends to an ever-wider variety of areas, aiming at the application of computers to safety-related systems.

Railway signalling systems based on fail-safe technologies have been built instead of making excessively quantitative safety evaluations. Today, in many fields, higher levels of safety are required, and the prudent approach of railway signalling systems including safety measures against possible failures large and small, is of greater significance.

Human Error Control in Railways

Amit Kumar , P.K.Sinha Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Patna,India

Humans are the weakest link in any embedded system. Failure rates for humans as system components are several orders of magnitude higher than other parts of the system. Railway operation system requires involvement of a large number of persons. This results in more human errors and hence disastrous consequences. The paper presents general theory of human errors; and stresses the need to adopt optimization in railway operations to the maximum possible extent; and to develop a continuous monitoring system for physical and psychological status of the workers.

Keywords: Human error, Railways, Railway Operational System, Attention Subsystem, Automatic Subsystem, Schemata, Absolute Block System.

The Safety Technology of Railway Signalling: its Most Distinctive Features and its Wider Application

Yuji Hirao, Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan Masayuki Matsumoto, East Japan Railway Company, Japan

This paper discusses the formulation of railway signalling safety technologies and the integration of fail-safety and quantitative analyses, extending the railway signalling safety concept into the industrial field.

In the context of the risk-based safety management approach, safety requirements for railway signalling systems are prescribed in CENELEC/IEC standards. Functional safety nowadays extends to an ever-wider variety of areas, aiming at the application of computers to safety-related systems.

Railway signalling systems based on fail-safe technologies have been built instead of making excessively quantitative safety evaluations. Today, in many fields, higher levels of safety are required, and the prudent approach of railway signalling systems including safety measures against possible failures large and small, is of greater significance.